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BACKGROUND – This research project supports the research criterion of Psi Beta’s mission: Professional development of students through engagement in research.

THE DATA AND SUPPORT FILES ARE NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE 2018-19 NATIONAL STUDY. Over 2,000 participated in the study, a Psi Beta record. 

  • CLICK HERE – for the research questionnaire used to gather data for the study. This PDF shows how the online questionnaire appeared to participants. It also includes the coding scheme for all the items,  and specifies which items were reverse coded. [Note that ALL of the Teacher Behavior checklist found in Section 3 – Items T1 to T22 were reverse coded, as were some of the Academic Self-Efficacy items, and one item each of the College Engagement and Course Engagement scales.]
  • CLICK HERE – for the Excel file containing the raw data. This is data downloaded directly from the Google Form. It does not have cleaned or recoded data.
  • CLICK HERE – for the Excel file with cleaned data. All items needing reverse coding have been reverse coded.
  • CLICK HERE – For the SPSS data file having the research data. The data has been cleaned and the items needing reverse coding have been reverse coded.
  • CLICK HERE – For an item codebook. This will help you match items to the scale they represent.
  • Several suggested hypotheses to test can be found below. Chapters are encouraged to develop and test additional hypotheses from the final data file.

The reference list is shown below. The articles provide background information on the scales used to measure the variables in this study and how the variables may relate to one another.

SUPPORT – Orientation Videos

  • CLICK HERE – Overview of this year’s research project.
  • CLICK HERE – Quick look at using SPSS to analyze the National Research Data set.
  • CLICK HERE – Link to the JASP website where you can download your copy of the JASP software program. The URL is You can then import the 2018-19 National Research SPSS data file (or the Excel file) into JASP and conduct your data exploration. Also, be sure to download the PDF manual for using JASP – it is quite good.
  • CLICK HERE – YouTube video introducing JASP.
  • CLICK HERE – Brief demonstration using JASP to analyze a few variables in the 2018-19 data set.

IRB – The Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Blinn Community College approved this study. For chapters at colleges without an IRB, Blinn’s IRB approval included participation of all Psi Beta chapters that complied with the participation conditions (e.g., informed consent, debriefing, anonymity of participants) stipulated here.

MEASURES – The research questionnaire for this study consisted of a set of scales developed by researchers who have been studying the extent to which undergraduate students are engaged in college and their courses, experience rapport with their professors, and how all this relates to the student’s academic self-concept. More specifically, the measures included this year’s study include the following:

  1. Student-Instructor Rapport Scale-9 (Lammers & Gillasphy, 2013)
  2. Professor Student Rapport Scale (Wilson, Ryan, & Pugh, 2010)
  3. Academic Self-Concept Scale (Reynolds, 1980)
  4. Teacher Behavior Checklist (Keeley, Smith, & Buskist, 2006)
  5. Student Engagement in College (source: Bridgette Hard)
  6. Student Engagement in Course (source: Bridgette Hard)

    – The following scripts were used to standardize the procedure used to gather research data for the study: instructor recruitment script, data-gathering script, and the debriefing script.

    7. Instructor Recruitment

    8. ScriptConsent Script (Note: this was embedded at the start online questionnaire used for this study)

    9. Debriefing Script (Note: this was embedded at the end of the online questionnaire for this study)

HYPOTHESIS – Possible research hypothesis includes:

  •  Students with a high academic self-concept will be more engaged in college.
  • The student with a high academic self-concept will report having more rapport with his/her instructor.
  • Students in face-to-face courses, as compared to students in online courses, will report greater rapport with their instructor.
  • Many other hypotheses about the relationship between measures will be possible to examine by using the research data file generated from this study.


Cokley, K, Komarraju, M., Patel, N., Castillon, J., Rosales, R., Pickett, R., Piedrahita, S., Ravitch, J., & Pang, L. (2004). Construction and initial validation of the student-professor interaction scale. The College of Student Affairs Journal, 24(1), 32-49.

Lammers, W. J., & Gillaspy, J. A. (2013). Brief Measure of Student-Instructor Rapport Predicts Student Success in Online Courses, International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 7(2). 

Keeley, J., Smith, D., & Buskist, W. (2006). The teacher behaviors checklist: Factor Analysis of its utility for evaluating teaching. Teaching of Psychology, 33(2), 84-91.

Keeley, J., Furr, R. M., & Buskist, W. (2009). Differentiating Psychology Students’ Perceptions of Teachers Using the Teacher Behavior Checklist, Teaching of Psychology, 37(1),16-20. 

Komarraju, M. (2013). Ideal teacher behaviors: Student motivation and self-efficacy predict preferences. Teaching of Psychology, 40(2), 104-110. 

Reynolds, W. M. (1980). Measurement of academic self-concept in college students. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Quebec, Canada.

Webb, N. G., & Barrett, L. O. (2014). Student views of instructor-student rapport in the college classroom. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 14(2)2,15 – 28. 

Wilson, J. H., Ryan, R. G., & Pugh, J. L. (2010). Professor-student rapport scale predicts student outcomes. Teaching of Psychology, 37, 246-251.

DATA-ENTRY LINK (participants used this link to input their responses to the study questionnaire). Recent research has found that participants who complete online in an un-proctored setting (e.g., home, Starbucks, etc.) tend to be more careless when responding to the questionnaire items. We recommended having participants report to a proctored computer lab to complete the online questionnaire. We hope that was how most participants responded to the research questionnaire. 

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